Imagine you want to see what InterSystems can give you in terms of data analytics. You studied the theory and now you want some practice. Fortunately, InterSystems provides a project that contains some good examples: Samples BI. Start with the README file, skipping anything associated with Docker, and go straight to the step-by-step installation. Launch a virtual instance, install IRIS there, follow the instructions for installing Samples BI, and then impress the boss with beautiful charts and tables. So far so good.

Inevitably, though, you’ll need to make changes.

It turns out that keeping a virtual machine on your own has some drawbacks, and it’s better to keep it with a cloud provider. Amazon seems solid, and you create an AWS account (free to start), read that using the root user identity for everyday tasks is evil, and create a regular IAM user with admin permissions.

Clicking a little, you create your own VPC network, subnets, and a virtual EC2 instance, and also add a security group to open the IRIS web port (52773) and ssh port (22) for yourself. Repeat the installation of IRIS and Samples BI. This time, use Bash scripting, or Python if you prefer. Again, impress the boss.

But the ubiquitous DevOps movement leads you to start reading about Infrastructure as Code and you want to implement it. You choose Terraform, since it’s well-known to everyone and its approach is quite universal—suitable with minor adjustments for various cloud providers. You describe the infrastructure in HCL language, and translate the installation steps for IRIS and Samples BI to Ansible. Then you create one more IAM user to enable Terraform to work. Run it all. Get a bonus at work.

Gradually you come to the conclusion that in our age of microservices it’s a shame not to use Docker, especially since InterSystems tells you how. You return to the Samples BI installation guide and read the lines about Docker, which don’t seem to be complicated:

$ docker pull intersystemsdc/iris-community:2019.4.0.383.0-zpm
$ docker run --name irisce -d --publish 52773:52773 intersystemsdc/iris-community:2019.4.0.383.0-zpm
$ docker exec -it irisce iris session iris
USER>zpm
zpm: USER>install samples-bi

After directing your browser to http://localhost:52773/csp/user/_DeepSee.UserPortal.Home.zen?$NAMESPACE=USER, you again go to the boss and get a day off for a nice job.

You then begin to understand that “docker run” is just the beginning, and you need to use at least docker-compose. Not a problem:

$ cat docker-compose.yml
version: "3.7"
services:
  irisce:
    container_name: irisce
    image: intersystemsdc/iris-community:2019.4.0.383.0-zpm
    ports:
    - 52773:52773
$ docker rm -f irisce # We don’t need the previous container
$ docker-compose up -d

So you install Docker and docker-compose with Ansible, and then just run the container, which will download an image if it’s not already present on the machine. Then you install Samples BI.

You certainly like Docker, because it’s a cool and simple interface to various kernel stuff. You start using Docker elsewhere and often launch more than one container. And find that often containers must communicate with each other, which leads to reading about how to manage multiple containers.

And you come to Kubernetes.

One option to quickly switch from docker-compose to Kubernetes is to use kompose. Personally, I prefer to simply copy Kubernetes manifests from manuals and then edit for myself, but kompose does a good job of completing its small task:

$ kompose convert -f docker-compose.yml
INFO Kubernetes file "irisce-service.yaml" created
INFO Kubernetes file "irisce-deployment.yaml" created

Now you have the deployment and service files that can be sent to some Kubernetes cluster. You find out that you can install a minikube, which lets you run a single-node Kubernetes cluster and is just what you need at this stage. After a day or two of playing with the minikube sandbox, you’re ready to use a real live Kubernetes deployment somewhere in the AWS cloud.

Getting Set Up

So, let’s do this together. At this point we'll make a couple assumptions:

First, we assume you have an AWS account, you know its ID, and you don’t use root credentials. You create an IAM user (let's call it “my-user”) with administrator rights and programmatic access only and store its credentials. You also create another IAM user, called “terraform,” with the same permissions:

On its behalf, Terraform will go to your AWS account and create and delete the necessary resources. The extensive rights of both users are explained by the fact that this is a demo. You save credentials locally for both IAM users:

$ cat ~/.aws/credentials
[terraform]
aws_access_key_id = ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST
aws_secret_access_key = ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ01234567890123
[my-user]
aws_access_key_id = TSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA
aws_secret_access_key = TSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA01234567890123

Note: Don’t copy and paste the credentials from above. They are provided here as an example and no longer exist. Edit the ~/.aws/credentials file and introduce your own records.

Second, we’ll use the dummy AWS Account ID (01234567890) for the article, and the AWS region “eu-west-1.” Feel free to use another region.

Third, we assume you’re aware that AWS is not free and you’ll have to pay for resources used.

Next, you’ve installed the AWS CLI utility for command-line communication with AWS. You can try to use aws2, but you’ll need to specifically set aws2 usage in your kube config file, as described here.

You’ve also installed the kubectl utility for command-line communication with AWS Kubernetes.

And you’ve installed the kompose utility for docker-compose.yml for converting Kubernetes manifests.

Finally, you’ve created an empty GitHub repository and cloned it to your host. We’ll refer to its root directory as <root_repo_dir>. In this repository, we’ll create and fill three directories: .github/workflows/, k8s/, and terraform/.

Note that all the relevant code is duplicated in the github-eks-samples-bi repo to simplify copying and pasting.

Let’s continue.

AWS EKS Provisioning

We already met EKS in the article Deploying a Simple IRIS-Based Web Application Using Amazon EKS. At that time, we created a cluster semi-automatically. That is, we described the cluster in a file, and then manually launched the eksctl utility from a local machine, which created the cluster according to our description.

eksctl was developed for creating EKS clusters and it’s good for a proof-of-concept implementation, but for everyday usage it’s better to use something more universal, such as Terraform. A great resource, AWS EKS Introduction, explains the Terraform configuration needed to create an EKS cluster. An hour or two spent getting acquainted with it will not be a waste of time.

You can play with Terraform locally. To do so, you’ll need a binary (we’ll use the latest version for Linux at the time of writing of the article, 0.12.20), and the IAM user “terraform” with sufficient rights for Terraform to go to AWS. Create the directory <root_repo_dir>/terraform/ to store Terraform code:

$ mkdir <root_repo_dir>/terraform $ cd <root_repo_dir>/terraform

You can create one or more .tf files (they are merged at startup). Just copy and paste the code examples from AWS EKS Introduction and then run something like:

$ export AWS_PROFILE=terraform $ export AWS_REGION=eu-west-1 $ terraform init $ terraform plan -out eks.plan

You may encounter some errors. If so, play a little with debug mode, but remember to turn it off later:

$ export TF_LOG=debug
$ terraform plan -out eks.plan
<many-many lines here>
$ unset TF_LOG

This experience will be useful, and most likely you’ll get an EKS cluster launched (use “terraform apply” for that). Check it out in the AWS console:

Clean up when you get bored:

$ terraform destroy

Then go to the next level and start using the Terraform EKS module, especially since it’s based on the same EKS introduction. In the examples/ directory you’ll see how to use it. You’ll also find other examples there.

We simplified the examples somewhat. Here’s the main file in which the VPC creation and EKS creation modules are called:

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/terraform/main.tf
terraform {
  required_version = ">= 0.12.0"
  backend "s3" {
    bucket         = "eks-github-actions-terraform"
    key            = "terraform-dev.tfstate"
    region         = "eu-west-1"
    dynamodb_table = "eks-github-actions-terraform-lock"
  }
}
provider "kubernetes" {
  host                   = data.aws_eks_cluster.cluster.endpoint
  cluster_ca_certificate = base64decode(data.aws_eks_cluster.cluster.certificate_authority.0.data)
  token                  = data.aws_eks_cluster_auth.cluster.token
  load_config_file       = false
  version                = "1.10.0"
}
locals {
  vpc_name             = "dev-vpc"
  vpc_cidr             = "10.42.0.0/16"
  private_subnets      = ["10.42.1.0/24", "10.42.2.0/24"]
  public_subnets       = ["10.42.11.0/24", "10.42.12.0/24"]
  cluster_name         = "dev-cluster"
  cluster_version      = "1.14"
  worker_group_name    = "worker-group-1"
  instance_type        = "t2.medium"
  asg_desired_capacity = 1
}
data "aws_eks_cluster" "cluster" {
  name = module.eks.cluster_id
}
data "aws_eks_cluster_auth" "cluster" {
  name = module.eks.cluster_id
}
data "aws_availability_zones" "available" {
}
module "vpc" {
  source               = "git::https://github.com/terraform-aws-modules/terraform-aws-vpc?ref=master"
  name                 = local.vpc_name
  cidr                 = local.vpc_cidr
  azs                  = data.aws_availability_zones.available.names
  private_subnets      = local.private_subnets
  public_subnets       = local.public_subnets
  enable_nat_gateway   = true
  single_nat_gateway   = true
  enable_dns_hostnames = true
  tags = {
    "kubernetes.io/cluster/${local.cluster_name}" = "shared"
  }
  public_subnet_tags = {
    "kubernetes.io/cluster/${local.cluster_name}" = "shared"
    "kubernetes.io/role/elb" = "1"
  }
  private_subnet_tags = {
    "kubernetes.io/cluster/${local.cluster_name}" = "shared"
    "kubernetes.io/role/internal-elb" = "1"
  }
}
module "eks" {
  source = "git::https://github.com/terraform-aws-modules/terraform-aws-eks?ref=master"
  cluster_name     = local.cluster_name
  cluster_version  = local.cluster_version
  vpc_id           = module.vpc.vpc_id
  subnets          = module.vpc.private_subnets
  write_kubeconfig = false
  worker_groups = [
    {
      name                 = local.worker_group_name
      instance_type        = local.instance_type
      asg_desired_capacity = local.asg_desired_capacity
    }
  ]
  map_accounts = var.map_accounts
  map_roles    = var.map_roles
  map_users    = var.map_users
}

Let’s look a little more closely at the “terraform” block in main.tf:

terraform {
  required_version = ">= 0.12.0"
  backend "s3" {
    bucket         = "eks-github-actions-terraform"
    key            = "terraform-dev.tfstate"
    region         = "eu-west-1"
    dynamodb_table = "eks-github-actions-terraform-lock"
  }
}

Here we indicate that we’ll adhere to the syntax not lower than Terraform 0.12 (much has changed compared with earlier versions), and also that Terraform shouldn’t store its state locally, but rather remotely, in the S3 bucket.

It’s convenient if the terraform code can be updated from different places by different people, which means we need to be able to lock a user’s state, so we added a lock using a dynamodb table. Read more about locks on the State Locking page.

Since the name of the bucket should be unique throughout AWS, the name “eks-github-actions-terraform” won’t work for you. Please think up your own and make sure it’s not already taken (so you’re getting a NoSuchBucket error):

$ aws s3 ls s3://my-bucket
An error occurred (AllAccessDisabled) when calling the ListObjectsV2 operation: All access to this object has been disabled
$ aws s3 ls s3://my-bucket-with-name-that-impossible-to-remember
An error occurred (NoSuchBucket) when calling the ListObjectsV2 operation: The specified bucket does not exist

Having come up with a name, create the bucket (we use the IAM user “terraform” here. It has administrator rights so it can create a bucket) and enable versioning for it (which will save your nerves in the event of a configuration error):

$ aws s3 mb s3://eks-github-actions-terraform --region eu-west-1
make_bucket: eks-github-actions-terraform
$ aws s3api put-bucket-versioning --bucket eks-github-actions-terraform --versioning-configuration Status=Enabled
$ aws s3api get-bucket-versioning --bucket eks-github-actions-terraform
{
  "Status": "Enabled"
}

With DynamoDB, uniqueness is not needed, but you do need to create a table first:

$ aws dynamodb create-table                                                                                     \
  --region eu-west-1                                                                                                           \
  --table-name eks-github-actions-terraform-lock                                              \
  --attribute-definitions AttributeName=LockID,AttributeType=S                \
  --key-schema AttributeName=LockID,KeyType=HASH                                   \
  --provisioned-throughput ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5

Keep in mind that, in case of Terraform failure, you may need to remove a lock manually from the AWS console. But be careful when doing so. With regard to the module eks/vpc blocks in main.tf, the way to reference the module available on GitHub is simple:

git::https://github.com/terraform-aws-modules/terraform-aws-vpc?ref=master

Now let’s look at our other two Terraform files (variables.tf and outputs.tf). The first holds our Terraform variables:

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/terraform/variables.tf
variable "region" {
  default = "eu-west-1"
}
variable "map_accounts" {
  description = "Additional AWS account numbers to add to the aws-auth configmap. See examples/basic/variables.tf for example format."
  type        = list(string)
  default     = []
}
variable "map_roles" {
  description = "Additional IAM roles to add to the aws-auth configmap."
  type = list(object({
    rolearn  = string
    username = string
    groups   = list(string)
  }))
  default = []
}
variable "map_users" {
  description = "Additional IAM users to add to the aws-auth configmap."
  type = list(object({
    userarn  = string
    username = string
    groups   = list(string)
  }))
  default = [
    {
      userarn  = "arn:aws:iam::01234567890:user/my-user"
      username = "my-user"
      groups   = ["system:masters"]
    }
  ]
}

The most important part here is adding the IAM user “my-user” to the map_users variable, but you should use your own account ID here in place of 01234567890.

What does this do? When you communicate with EKS through the local kubectl client, it sends requests to the Kubernetes API server, and each request goes through authentication and authorization processes so Kubernetes can understand who sent the request and what they can do. So the EKS version of Kubernetes asks AWS IAM for help with user authentication. If the user who sent the request is listed in AWS IAM (we pointed to his ARN here), the request goes to the authorization stage, which EKS processes itself, but according to our settings. Here, we indicated that the IAM user “my-user” is very cool (group “system: masters”).

Finally, the outputs.tf file describes what Terraform should print after it finishes a job:

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/terraform/outputs.tf
output "cluster_endpoint" {
  description = "Endpoint for EKS control plane."
  value       = module.eks.cluster_endpoint
}
output "cluster_security_group_id" {
  description = "Security group ids attached to the cluster control plane."
  value       = module.eks.cluster_security_group_id
}
output "config_map_aws_auth" {
  description = "A kubernetes configuration to authenticate to this EKS cluster."
  value       = module.eks.config_map_aws_auth
}

This completes the description of the Terraform part. We’ll return soon to see how we’re going to launch these files.

Kubernetes Manifests

So far, we’ve taken care of where to launch the application. Now let’s look at what to run.

Recall that we have docker-compose.yml (we renamed the service and added a couple of labels that kompose will use shortly) in the <root_repo_dir>/k8s/ directory:

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/k8s/docker-compose.yml
version: "3.7"
services:
  samples-bi:
    container_name: samples-bi
    image: intersystemsdc/iris-community:2019.4.0.383.0-zpm
    ports:
    - 52773:52773
    labels:
      kompose.service.type: loadbalancer
      kompose.image-pull-policy: IfNotPresent

Run kompose and then add what’s highlighted below. Delete annotations (to make things more intelligible):

$ kompose convert -f docker-compose.yml --replicas=1
$ cat <root_repo_dir>/k8s/samples-bi-deployment.yaml
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    io.kompose.service: samples-bi
  name: samples-bi
spec:
  replicas: 1
  strategy:
    type: Recreate
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        io.kompose.service: samples-bi
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: intersystemsdc/iris-community:2019.4.0.383.0-zpm
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        name: samples-bi
        ports:
        - containerPort: 52773
        resources: {}
        lifecycle:
          postStart:
            exec:
              command:
              - /bin/bash
              - -c
              - |
                echo -e "write\nhalt" > test
                until iris session iris < test; do sleep 1; done
                echo -e "zpm\ninstall samples-bi\nquit\nhalt" > samples_bi_install
                iris session iris < samples_bi_install
                rm test samples_bi_install
        restartPolicy: Always

We use the Recreate update strategy, which means that the pod will be deleted first and then recreated. This is permissible for demo purposes and allows us to use fewer resources. We also added the postStart hook, which will trigger immediately after the pod starts. We wait until IRIS starts up and install the samples-bi package from the default zpm-repository. Now we add the Kubernetes service (also without annotations):

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/k8s/samples-bi-service.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    io.kompose.service: samples-bi
  name: samples-bi
spec:
  ports:
  - name: "52773"
    port: 52773
    targetPort: 52773
  selector:
    io.kompose.service: samples-bi
  type: LoadBalancer

Yes, we’ll deploy in the “default” namespace, which will work for the demo.

Okay, now we know where and what we want to run. It remains to see how.

The GitHub Actions Workflow

Rather than doing everything from scratch, we’ll create a workflow similar to the one described in Deploying InterSystems IRIS solution on GKE Using GitHub Actions. This time we don’t have to worry about building a container. The GKE-specific parts are replaced by those specific to EKS. Bolded parts are related to receiving the commit message and using it in conditional steps:

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/.github/workflows/workflow.yaml
name: Provision EKS cluster and deploy Samples BI there
on:
  push:
    branches:
    - master
# Environment variables.
# ${{ secrets }} are taken from GitHub -> Settings -> Secrets
# ${{ github.sha }} is the commit hash
env:
  AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID: ${{ secrets.AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID }}
  AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY: ${{ secrets.AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY }}
  AWS_REGION: ${{ secrets.AWS_REGION }}
  CLUSTER_NAME: dev-cluster
  DEPLOYMENT_NAME: samples-bi
jobs:
  eks-provisioner:
    # Inspired by:
    ## https://www.terraform.io/docs/github-actions/getting-started.html
    ## https://github.com/hashicorp/terraform-github-actions
    name: Provision EKS cluster
    runs-on: ubuntu-18.04
    steps:
    - name: Checkout
      uses: actions/checkout@v2
    - name: Get commit message
      run: |
        echo ::set-env name=commit_msg::$(git log --format=%B -n 1 ${{ github.event.after }})
    - name: Show commit message
      run: echo $commit_msg
    - name: Terraform init
      uses: hashicorp/terraform-github-actions@master
      with:
        tf_actions_version: 0.12.20
        tf_actions_subcommand: 'init'
        tf_actions_working_dir: 'terraform'
    - name: Terraform validate
      uses: hashicorp/terraform-github-actions@master
      with:
        tf_actions_version: 0.12.20
        tf_actions_subcommand: 'validate'
        tf_actions_working_dir: 'terraform'
    - name: Terraform plan
      if: "!contains(env.commit_msg, '[destroy eks]')"
      uses: hashicorp/terraform-github-actions@master
      with:
        tf_actions_version: 0.12.20
        tf_actions_subcommand: 'plan'
        tf_actions_working_dir: 'terraform'
    - name: Terraform plan for destroy
      if: "contains(env.commit_msg, '[destroy eks]')"
      uses: hashicorp/terraform-github-actions@master
      with:
        tf_actions_version: 0.12.20
        tf_actions_subcommand: 'plan'
        args: '-destroy -out=./destroy-plan'
        tf_actions_working_dir: 'terraform'
    - name: Terraform apply
      if: "!contains(env.commit_msg, '[destroy eks]')"
      uses: hashicorp/terraform-github-actions@master
      with:
        tf_actions_version: 0.12.20
        tf_actions_subcommand: 'apply'
        tf_actions_working_dir: 'terraform'
    - name: Terraform apply for destroy
      if: "contains(env.commit_msg, '[destroy eks]')"
      uses: hashicorp/terraform-github-actions@master
      with:
        tf_actions_version: 0.12.20
        tf_actions_subcommand: 'apply'
        args: './destroy-plan'
        tf_actions_working_dir: 'terraform'
  kubernetes-deploy:
    name: Deploy Kubernetes manifests to EKS
    needs:
    - eks-provisioner
    runs-on: ubuntu-18.04
    steps:
    - name: Checkout
      uses: actions/checkout@v2
    - name: Get commit message
      run: |
        echo ::set-env name=commit_msg::$(git log --format=%B -n 1 ${{ github.event.after }})
    - name: Show commit message
      run: echo $commit_msg
    - name: Configure AWS Credentials
      if: "!contains(env.commit_msg, '[destroy eks]')"
      uses: aws-actions/configure-aws-credentials@v1
      with:
        aws-access-key-id: ${{ secrets.AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID }}
        aws-secret-access-key: ${{ secrets.AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY }}
        aws-region: ${{ secrets.AWS_REGION }}
    - name: Apply Kubernetes manifests
      if: "!contains(env.commit_msg, '[destroy eks]')"
      working-directory: ./k8s/
      run: |
        aws eks update-kubeconfig --name ${CLUSTER_NAME}
        kubectl apply -f samples-bi-service.yaml
        kubectl apply -f samples-bi-deployment.yaml
        kubectl rollout status deployment/${DEPLOYMENT_NAME}

Of course, we need to set the credentials of the “terraform” user (take them from the ~/.aws/credentials file), letting Github use its secrets:

Notice the highlighted parts of workflow. They will enable us to destroy an EKS cluster by pushing a commit message that contains a phrase “[destroy eks]”. Note that we won’t run “kubernetes apply” with such a commit message. Run a pipeline, but first create a .gitignore file:

$ cat <root_repo_dir>/.gitignore
.DS_Store
terraform/.terraform/
terraform/*.plan
terraform/*.json
$ cd <root_repo_dir>
$ git add .github/ k8s/ terraform/ .gitignore
$ git commit -m "GitHub on EKS"
$ git push

Monitor deployment process on the "Actions" tab of GitHub repository page. Please wait for successful completion.

When you run a workflow for the very first time, it will take about 15 minutes on the “Terraform apply” step, approximately as long as it takes to create the cluster. At the next start (if you didn’t delete the cluster), the workflow will be much faster. You can check this out:

$ cd <root_repo_dir>
$ git commit -m "Trigger" --allow-empty
$ git push

Of course, it would be nice to check what we did. This time you can use the credentials of IAM “my-user” on your laptop:

$ export AWS_PROFILE=my-user
$ export AWS_REGION=eu-west-1
$ aws sts get-caller-identity
$ aws eks update-kubeconfig --region=eu-west-1 --name=dev-cluster --alias=dev-cluster
$ kubectl config current-context
dev-cluster
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME                                                                               STATUS   ROLES      AGE          VERSION
ip-10-42-1-125.eu-west-1.compute.internal   Ready      <none>    6m20s     v1.14.8-eks-b8860f
$ kubectl get po
NAME                                                       READY        STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
samples-bi-756dddffdb-zd9nw    1/1               Running    0                      6m16s
$ kubectl get svc
NAME                   TYPE                        CLUSTER-IP        EXTERNAL-IP                                                                                                                                                         PORT(S)                    AGE
kubernetes        ClusterIP               172.20.0.1            <none>                                                                                                                                                                    443/TCP                    11m
samples-bi         LoadBalancer     172.20.33.235    a2c6f6733557511eab3c302618b2fae2-622862917.eu-west-1.elb.amazonaws.com    52773:31047/TCP  6m33s

Go to http://a2c6f6733557511eab3c302618b2fae2-622862917.eu-west-1.elb.amazonaws.com:52773/csp/user/_DeepSee.UserPortal.Home.zen?$NAMESPACE=USER (substitute link by your External-IP), then type “_system”, “SYS” and change the default password. You should see a bunch of BI dashboards:

Click on each one’s arrow to deep dive:

Remember, if you restart a samples-bi pod, all your changes will be lost. This is intentional behavior as this is a demo. If you need persistence, I've created an example in the github-gke-zpm-registry/k8s/statefulset.tpl repository.

When you’re finished, just remove everything you’ve created:

$ git commit -m "Mr Proper [destroy eks]" --allow-empty
$ git push

Conclusion

In this article, we replaced the eksctl utility with Terraform to create an EKS cluster. It’s a step forward to “codify” all of your AWS infrastructure. We showed how you can easily deploy a demo application with git push using Github Actions and Terraform. We also added kompose and a pod’s postStart hooks to our toolbox. We didn’t show TLS enabling this time. That’s a task we’ll undertake in the near future.

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